He named more than 70 cities after himself—and one after his horse. Alexander commemorated his conquests by founding dozens of cities usually built up around previous military fortswhich he invariably named Alexandria. The most famous of these, founded at the mouth of the Nile in B. Near the site of the battle of the river Hydaspes—the costliest victory of his Indian campaign—Alexander founded the city of Bucephala, named for his favorite horse, which was mortally wounded in the battle.
He campaigned successfully across the Punjab as far as… Alexander now occupied Babyloncity and province; Mazaeus, who surrendered it, was confirmed as satrap in conjunction with a Macedonian troop commander, and quite exceptionally was granted the right to coin. As in Egypt, the local priesthood was encouraged.
Crushing the mountain tribe of the Ouxians, he now pressed on over the Zagros range into Persia proper and, successfully turning the Pass of the Persian Gates, held by the satrap Ariobarzaneshe entered Persepolis and Pasargadae. In spring Alexander marched north into Media and occupied its capital.
The Thessalians and Greek allies were sent home; henceforward he was waging a purely personal war. He had come to envisage a joint ruling people consisting of Macedonians and Persians, and this served to augment the Who was alexander the great that now arose between him and his people.
Before continuing his pursuit of Darius, who had retreated into Bactriahe assembled all the Persian treasure and entrusted it to Harpaluswho was to hold it at Ecbatana as chief treasurer.
Parmenio was also left behind in Media to control communications; the presence of this older man had perhaps become irksome. Alexander sent his body for burial with due honours in the royal tombs at Persepolis. His advance eastward was now rapid. Bessus was now in Bactria raising a national revolt in the eastern satrapies with the usurped title of Great King.
Crossing the Hindu Kush northward over the Khawak Pass 11, feet [3, metres]Alexander brought his army, despite food shortages, to Drapsaca sometimes identified with modern Banu [Andarab], probably farther north at Qunduz ; outflanked, Bessus fled beyond the Oxus modern Amu Daryaand Alexander, marching west to Bactra-Zariaspa modern Balkh [ Wazirabad ] in Afghanistanappointed loyal satraps in Bactria and Aria.
Crossing the Oxus, he sent his general Ptolemy in pursuit of Bessus, who had meanwhile been overthrown by the Sogdian Spitamenes. Bessus was captured, flogged, and sent to Bactra, where he was later mutilated after the Persian manner losing his nose and ears ; in due course he was publicly executed at Ecbatana.
From Maracanda modern Samarkand Alexander advanced by way of Cyropolis to the Jaxartes modern Syrdaryathe boundary of the Persian empire.
There he broke the opposition of the Scythian nomads by his use of catapults and, after defeating them in a battle on the north bank of the river, pursued them into the interior. It took Alexander until the autumn of to crush the most determined opponent he encountered in his campaigns. Later in the same year he attacked Oxyartes and the remaining barons who held out in the hills of Paraetacene modern Tajikistan ; volunteers seized the crag on which Oxyartes had his stronghold, and among the captives was his daughter, Roxana.
|Sorry! Something went wrong!||Two years later he commanded the left wing at the Battle of Chaeroneain which Philip defeated the allied Greek states, and displayed personal courage in breaking the Sacred Band of Thebes, an elite military corps composed of pairs of lovers. Shortly afterward, father and son were reconciled and Alexander returned, but his position as heir was jeopardized.|
|In 15 years of conquest Alexander never lost a battle.||Philip waged war against Byzantionleaving Alexander in charge as regent and heir apparent.|
|Beginnings of the Persian expedition||After an advance screening of the film, the lawyers announced that they would not pursue such a course of action. Criticism by historians[ edit ] Alexander attracted critical scrutiny from historians with regard to historical accuracy.|
In reconciliation Alexander married her, and the rest of his opponents were either won over or crushed. An incident that occurred at Maracanda widened the breach between Alexander and many of his Macedonians.
He murdered Cleitus, one of his most-trusted commanders, in a drunken quarrel, but his excessive display of remorse led the army to pass a decree convicting Cleitus posthumously of treason.
Even Callistheneshistorian and nephew of Aristotlewhose ostentatious flattery had perhaps encouraged Alexander to see himself in the role of a god, refused to abase himself.
Macedonian laughter caused the experiment to founder, and Alexander abandoned it. Shortly afterward, however, Callisthenes was held to be privy to a conspiracy among the royal pages and was executed or died in prison; accounts vary ; resentment of this action alienated sympathy from Alexander within the Peripatetic school of philosophers, with which Callisthenes had close connections.
Invasion of India In early summer Alexander left Bactria with a reinforced army under a reorganized command.
Half the army with the baggage under Hephaestion and Perdiccasboth cavalry commanders, was sent through the Khyber Passwhile he himself led the rest, together with his siege train, through the hills to the north.
In June Alexander fought his last great battle on the left bank of the Hydaspes. He founded two cities there, Alexandria Nicaea to celebrate his victory and Bucephala named after his horse Bucephaluswhich died there ; and Porus became his ally.
How much Alexander knew of India beyond the Hyphasis probably the modern Beas is uncertain; there is no conclusive proof that he had heard of the Ganges. On finding the army adamantAlexander agreed to turn back.
On the Hyphasis he erected 12 altars to the 12 Olympian gods, and on the Hydaspes he built a fleet of to 1, ships.
Leaving Porus, he then proceeded down the river and into the Indus, with half his forces on shipboard and half marching in three columns down the two banks.
The march was attended with much fighting and heavy, pitiless slaughter; at the storming of one town of the Malli near the Hydraotes Ravi River, Alexander received a severe wound which left him weakened. On reaching Patala, located at the head of the Indus delta, he built a harbour and docks and explored both arms of the Indus, which probably then ran into the Rann of Kachchh.
He planned to lead part of his forces back by land, while the rest in perhaps to ships under the command of Nearchus, a Cretan with naval experience, made a voyage of exploration along the Persian Gulf. Local opposition led Nearchus to set sail in Septemberand he was held up for three weeks until he could pick up the northeast monsoon in late October.
In September Alexander too set out along the coast through Gedrosia modern Baluchistanbut he was soon compelled by mountainous country to turn inland, thus failing in his project to establish food depots for the fleet. Craterusa high-ranking officer, already had been sent off with the baggage and siege train, the elephants, and the sick and wounded, together with three battalions of the phalanxby way of the Mulla Pass, Quettaand Kandahar into the Helmand Valley ; from there he was to march through Drangiana to rejoin the main army on the Amanis modern Minab River in Carmania.
At length, at the Amanis, he was rejoined by Nearchus and the fleet, which also had suffered losses. Consolidation of the empire Alexander now proceeded farther with the policy of replacing senior officials and executing defaulting governors on which he had already embarked before leaving India.Alexander the Great, also known as Alexander III or Alexander of Macedonia, (born bce, Pella, Macedonia [northwest of Thessaloníki, Greece]—died June 13, bce, Babylon [near Al-Ḥillah, Iraq]), king of Macedonia (– bce), who overthrew the Persian empire, carried Macedonian arms to India, and laid the foundations for the.
Nov 21, · Conquering 90% of the known world by the age of 25, Alexander the Great led his armies through 22, miles of sieges and conquests in just eight years. Coming out of tiny Macedonia (today part of Greece), Alexander led his armies against the mighty Persian Empire, drove west to Egypt, and finally made his way east to India/10(K).
The Indian campaign of Alexander the Great began in BC.
After conquering the Achaemenid Empire of Persia, the Macedonian king (and now the great king of the Persian Empire), Alexander, launched a campaign into the Indian subcontinent.
In the first authoritative biography of Alexander the Great written for a general audience in a generation, classicist and historian Philip Freeman tells the remarkable life of the great conqueror. The celebrated Macedonian king has been one of the most enduring figures in history/5(). Alexander is a epic historical drama film based on the life of the Macedonian general and king Alexander the Great.
It was directed by Oliver Stone, with Colin Farrell in the title role. The film was an original screenplay based in part on the book Alexander the Great. Watch video · Alexander the Great was born in the Pella region of the Ancient Greek kingdom of Macedonia on July 20, B.C., to parents King Philip II of Macedon and Queen Olympia, daughter of King Neoptolemus.