In the context of security architecture, the congruence model can be applied to creating comprehensive security assessments for an organization. The model emphasizes analysis of the relationships among four core components of an organization shown in the graphic below also called the building blocks whose alignment relationships are the focus of congruent security architecture techniques.
An organization is an open system, which interacts with its environment. The organization is not conscious of all aspects of its environment, at all times. The organization functions in a context of pressures, resources, and history.
The pressures represent "all factors, including institutions, groups, individuals, events, and so on, that are outside the organization being analyzed, but that have a potential impact on the organization" Nadler and Tushman These impacts can be organized as the threats the organization, opportunities, demands, constraints, and uncertainties the organization perceives.
The resources of the organization are all those "assets to which the organization has access, including human resources, technology, capital, information, and so on, as well as less tangible resources recognition in the market, and so forth " Nadler and Tushman The history of the organization is "the patterns of past behavior, activity, and effectiveness of the organization that may affect current organizational functioning" Nadler and Tushman This includes such factors as "strategic decisions, acts of key leaders, crises, and core values and norms" Nadler and Tushman Question Tushman o reilly congruence model issue, Dilemma to be Resolved, or Problem to be Solved.
For an organization to be effective, efficient, and ethical, it must have a strong sense of where it is going, where it is relative to that vision, and what it can reasonably expect Mises ; Senge This is the leadership and management function of pathfinding. The framework needs to be adept at formulating a dilemma or problem in a clear and relevant way, to choose from among alternative formulations, to discuss the merits of different versions of the question at issue, to recognize common key elements in statements of different problems, to structure the articulation of dilemmas and problems so as to make possible lines of solution more apparent.
In short, the problem solving process works to close the gap between the vision and the current reality. It is not enough to merely make a decision and communicate it. Some form of action is required to put the decision into action.
Management theory, as Harold Leavitt writes, is based on the wielding of power. If an organization is to be effective, efficient, and ethical, implementing must be the result of the exercise of authority Kennedy and Charles. It is helpful, then, to expand on the levels of intervention that Leavitt describes-coercion, manipulation, and persuasion-to include the facilitation and inspiration that permits those involved in or affected by an organization to live lives of maximum dignity and freedom UOP Whenever we reason or communicate, the ends and means chosen are essential drivers of human action.
Understanding of the case requires that the visions, views or reality and expectations that purposeful action will fill the gap between vision and reality of all those involved or affected be recognized and evaluated.
The framework must be able to identify the ends and means sought by those involved and affected by the case, choose among different ends and means to those ends, and reason about the subjective valuations that lead to choosing those ends and means, the personal qualities of the persons who chose those ends and means, and the inheritance and environment that led to those personal qualities Mises Here is where the decision maker or actor employs various theories of applied ethics.
It is helpful to analyze these theories into one of four bodies of thought: It is here-where these bodies of thought overlap-that the principles set forth in the dominant theories of Western ethics reside: The framework needs to have some sort of filter that insures that the ethics and policy process has been accomplished in an ethical manner.
This, then, is the methodological or process aspect of ethics. It answers the questions, Has this manner been addressed in an ethical manner, and will the actions taken to implement any decision be ethical in and of themselves?
The output from the ethics and policy process will depend upon the purpose of the inquiry.
Taken from the broadest perspective, the output is the ethical being of the organization itself. As has been said of Aristotle, "the virtuous person must enjoy being virtuous" UOP Action performed must not be an isolated incident but rather a manifestation of an enduring state of character" UOP Lee Roy Beach, in his landmark work, Image Theory: Decision Making in Personal and Organizational Contexts, writes that decision making is cognitive process, the output from which is the cognitive structures of value, trajectory, and strategic images.
In Beach's view, an image is a schema, which consist of "elements, concepts, and the relationships among them, that are pertinent in some sphere of interest to an actor" Beach Tushman and O?Reilly offer a congruence based problem solving approach.
This simple to use diagnostic tool requires no outside intervention such as counselors, consultants, or any other type of sophisticated technology.
Tushman and O’Reilly III () state that such a balance is necessary in order for firms to survive ambidextrously. From this view, ambidexterity is defined as the simultaneous pursuit and balance of exploration and exploitation activities (Lubatkin et al., ) as a means to reap revolutionary and evolutionary change (Tushman & O’Reilly.
Charles A. O'Reilly III is the Frank E. Buck Professor of Management at Stanford University's Graduate School of Business.
Michael L. Tushman is the Paul R. Lawrence MBA Class of Professor of Business Administration at Harvard Business School. The framework Nadler and Tushman describe is a congruence model. Such a model is based on the premise that the elements in a system must be congruent, or fit, with each other and with the surrounding environment as well ().
SMA is used in beer and Tushman: Microelectronic Products Division (A) case, to investigate O'Reilly and Tushman to compare models. Participants will learn about the model through a series of video presentations and become familiar with the issues through interactive SMA caselet. From management literature (Tushman & O'Reilly), the congruence-based problem solving is a method to quickly and accurately identify the root cause of performance or opportunity gaps.
In the context of security architecture, the congruence model can be applied to creating comprehensive security assessments for an organization. The model emphasizes analysis of the relationships among four.