Let me also avail of the occasion to express our heartfelt gratitude for the hospitality accorded to us by the people and Government of Austria. The underlying reasons that prompted the first International Ministerial Conference of Landlocked and Transit Developing Countries and our International Partners ten-years ago, culminating in the Almaty Programme of Action, are too cogent and vivid to merit additional elaboration here. The original emphasis was perhaps skewed on the trade encumbrances and infrastructural bottlenecks land locked countries face, with deleterious implications on their economic growth.
For the purpose of this Convention, a. The term "land-locked State" means any Contracting State which has no sea-coast; b. The trans-shipment, warehousing, breaking bulk, and change in the mode of transport of such goods as well as the assembly, disassembly or reassembly of machinery and bulky goods shall not render the passage of goods outside the definition of "traffic in transit" provided that any such operation is undertaken solely for the convenience of transportation.
Nothing, in this paragraph shall be construed as imposing an obligation on any Contracting State to establish or permit the establishment of permanent facilities on its territory for The rights accorded the landlocked countries assembly, disassembly or reassembly; c.
Article 2 Freedom of transit 1. Freedom of transit shall be granted under the terms of this Convention for traffic in transit and means of transport.
Subject to the other provisions of this Convention, the measures taken by Contracting States for regulating and forwarding traffic across their territory shall facilitate traffic in transit on routes in use mutually acceptable for transit to the Contracting States concerned.
Consistent with the terms of this Convention, no discrimination shall be exercised which is based on the place of origin, departure, entry, exit or destination or any circumstances relating to the ownership of the goods or the ownership, place of registration or flag of vessels, land vehicles or other means of transport used.
The rules governing the use of means of transport, when they pass across part or the whole of the territory of another Contracting State, shall be established by command agreement among the Contracting States concerned, with due regard to the multilateral international conventions to which these States are parties.
Each Contracting State shall authorize, in accordance with its laws, rules and regulations, the passage across or access to its territory of persons whose movement is necessary for traffic in transit. The Contracting States shall permit the passage of traffic in transit across their territorial waters in accordance with the principles of customary international law or applicable international conventions and with their internal regulations.
Article 3 Customs duties and special transit dues Traffic in transit shall not be subjected by any authority within the transit State to customs duties or taxes chargeable by reason of importation or exportation nor to any special dues in respect of transit. Nevertheless on such traffic in transit there may be levied charges intended solely to defray expenses of supervision and administration entailed by such transit.
Article 4 Means of transport and tariffs 1. The Contracting States undertake to provide, subject to availability, at the points of entry and exit, and as required at points of trans-shipment, adequate means of transport and handling equipment for the movement of traffic in transit without unnecessary delay.
The Contracting States undertake to apply to traffic in transit, using facilities operated or administered by the State, tariffs or charges which, having regard to the conditions of the traffic and to considerations of commercial competition, are reasonable as regards both their rates and the method of their application.
These tariffs or charges shall be so fixed as to facilitate traffic in transit as much as possible, and shall not be higher than the tariffs or charges applied by Contracting States for the transport through their territory of goods of countries with access to the sea.
The provisions of this paragraph shall also extend to the tariffs and charges applicable to traffic in transit using facilities operated or administered by firms or individuals, in cases in which the tariffs or charges are fixed or subject to control by the Contracting State.
The term "facilities" used in this paragraph shall comprise means of transport, port installations and routes for the use of which tariffs or charges are levied. Any haulage service established as a monopoly on waterways used for transit must be so organized as not to hinder the transit of vessels.
Article 5 Methods and documentation in regard to customs, transport, etc 1. The Contracting States shall apply administrative and customs measures permitting the carrying out of free, uninterrupted and continuous traffic in transit. When necessary, they should undertake negotiations to agree on measures that ensure and facilitate the said transit.
The Contracting States undertake to use simplified documentation and expeditious methods in regard to customs, transport and other administrative procedures relating to traffic in transit for the whole transit journey on their territory, including any trans-shipment, warehousing, breaking bulk, and changes in the mode of transport as may take place in the course of such a journey.
Article 6 Storage of goods in transit 1. The conditions of storage of goods in transit at the point of entry and exit, and at intermediate stages in the transit State may be established by conditions of storage at least as favourable as those granted to goods coming from or going to their own countries.
The tariffs an charges shall be established in accordance with Article 4. Article 7 Delays or difficulties in traffic in transit 1.
Endalcachew Bayeh. The Rights of Land-Locked States Under the International Law: The Role of Bilateral/Multilateral Agreements. Social Sciences. Vol. 4, No. 2, , pp. doi: /leslutinsduphoenix.com Abstract: The United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea provided rights for land-locked states on the sea. Being landlocked is a major reason why 16 of the world’s 31 landlocked developing countries are among the poorest in the world, say three World Bank economists working on trade logistics issues. A landlocked state or landlocked country is a sovereign state entirely enclosed by land, or whose only coastlines lie on closed seas. There are currently 49 such countries, including five partially recognised states. Only two, Bolivia and Paraguay in South America, lie outside Afro-Eurasia (the Old World).
Except in eases of force majeure all measures shall be taken by Contracting States to avoid delays in or restrictions on traffic in transit. Article 8 Free zones or other customs facilities 1. For convenience of traffic in transit, free zones or other customs facilities may be provided at the ports of entry and exit in the transit States by agreement between those States and the land-locked States.
Facilities of this nature may also be provided for the benefit of land-locked States in other transit States which have no sea-coast or seaports. Article 9 Provision of greater facilities This Convention does not entail in any way the withdrawal of transit facilities which are greater than those provided for in the Convention and which under conditions consistent with its principles, are agreed on between Contracting States or granted by a Contracting State.
The Convention also does not preclude such grant of greater facilities in the future.
Article 10 Relation to most-favoured-nation clause 1. The Contracting States agree that the facilities and special rights accorded by this Convention to land-locked States in view of their special geographical position are excluded from the operation of the most-favoured-nation clause.
A land-locked State which is not a Party to this Convention may claim the facilities and special rights accorded to land-locked States under this Convention only on the basis of the most-favoured-nation clause of a treaty between that land-locked State and the Contracting State granting such facilities and special rights.
If a Contracting State grants to a land-locked State facilities or special rights greater than those provided for in this Convention, such facilities or special rights may be limited to that land-locked State, except in so far as the withholding of such greater facilities or special rights from any other land-locked State contravenes the most-favoured-nation provision of a treaty between such other land-locked State and the Contracting State granting such facilities or special rights.
Article 11 Exceptions to Convention on grounds of public health, security, and protection of intellectual property 1.For example, the average GDP per capita for the world is approximately $15 US dollars but of the world’s landlocked countries, only a few, such as Switzerland and Austria, have a .
the right of transit countries, in the exercise of their full sovereignty over their territory, to take all measures necessary to ensure that the rights and facilities provided for landlocked countries.
A land-locked State which is not a Party to this Convention may claim the facilities and special rights accorded to land-locked States under this Convention only on the basis of the most-favoured-nation clause of a treaty between that land-locked State and the .
FOR LAND-LOCKED STATES: THE EVOLUTION OF PRINCIPLE AND LAW goods in transit of landlocked countries have been subjected to seizures for the satisfaction of orders issued in States of transit,' and routine impositions on the Countries and Rights of .
The Rights Accorded the Landlocked Countries in the Law of November 4th, - imposes serious constraint on the overall socio economic development of landlocked countries the 48 landlocked countries 31 are developing case of LANDLOCKED DÃ©finition et synonymes de landlocked dans le.
Endalcachew Bayeh. The Rights of Land-Locked States Under the International Law: The Role of Bilateral/Multilateral Agreements.
Social Sciences. Vol. 4, No. 2, , pp. doi: /leslutinsduphoenix.com Abstract: The United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea provided rights for land-locked states on the sea.