To sustain growth and foreign investment over the long run requires a well-developed legal infrastructure for conducting business, including cheap and reliable contract enforcement and secure property rights. How has this situation arisen, and what can boost business confidence and encourage long-run economic growth?
The Punjab under Colonialism: Order and Transformation in British India customary law that formed the cornerstone of the British policy of political control. _____ When the British annexed the Sikh kingdom of the Punjab in , they already Transformation and Land Ownership in Colonial Punjab. The next six chapters focus on specific domains of law — both statutory and case law — that bear particular importance to private economic development and the fiscal health of the colonial state. These domains include land rights, property rights, labor law, contract law, and corporate law. This chapter examines the evolution of policies by the Indian colonial state toward property rights in land. Initially, the fiscal imperative predominated: it tried to identify the “owners” of land who could be in charge of collecting the land tax within the existing institutional framework. Indian realities were more complex, however, and the zamindars, the elite identified as the owners.
History[ edit ] The Land Acquisition Act, was a British era law  that governed the process of land Land law in colonial india in India until and continues to do so in Pakistan and Myanmar.
Of particular concern was that despite many amendments, over the years, to India's Land Acquisition Act ofthere was an absence of a cohesive national law that addressed fair compensation when private land is acquired for public use, and fair rehabilitation of land owners and those directly affected from loss of livelihoods.
The Government of India believed that a combined law was necessary, one that legally requires rehabilitation and resettlement necessarily and simultaneously follow government acquisition of land for public purposes. Moreover, no one can challenge the reasonableness of the restriction imposed by any Land law in colonial india the legislature made to deprive the person of his property.
State must pay compensation at the market value for such land, building or structure acquired Inserted by Constitution, Seventeenth Amendment Act,the same can be found in the earlier rulings when property right was a fundamental right such as AIRSCRwhich propounded that the word "Compensation" deployed in Article 31 2 implied full compensation, that is the market value of the property at the time of the acquisition.
The Legislature must "ensure that what is determined as payable must be compensation, that is, a just equivalent of what the owner has been deprived of". Chandrabhan Tale on 7 July that the fundamental right to property has been abolished because of its incompatibility with the goals of "justice" social, economic and political and "equality of status and of opportunity" and with the establishment of "a socialist democratic republic, as contemplated by the Constitution.
There is no reason why a new concept of property should be introduced in the place of the old so as to bring in its wake the vestiges of the doctrine of Laissez Faire and create, in the name of efficiency, a new oligarchy.
Efficiency has many facets and one is yet to discover an infallible test of efficiency to suit the widely differing needs of a developing society such as ours" AIRSCR 3 Dey Biswasfootnote. Two Bills on similar lines were introduced in Lok Sabha in These Bills lapsed with the dissolution of the 14th Lok Sabha.
To ensure, in consultation with institutions of local self-government and Gram Sabhas established under the Constitution of Indiaa humane, participative, informed and transparent process for land acquisition for industrialisationdevelopment of essential infrastructural facilities and urbanisation with the least disturbance to the owners of the land and other affected families Provide just and fair compensation to the affected families whose land has been acquired or proposed to be acquired or are affected by such acquisition Make adequate provisions for such affected persons for their rehabilitation and resettlement Ensure that the cumulative outcome of compulsory acquisition should be that affected persons become partners in development leading to an improvement in their post acquisition social and economic status and for matters connected therewith or incidental thereto.
The Act is applicable when: Government acquires land for its own use, hold and control, including land for Public sector undertakings.
Government acquires land with the ultimate purpose to transfer it for the use of private companies for stated public purpose. The purpose of LARR includes public-private-partnership projects, but excludes land acquired for state or national highway projects. Government acquires land for immediate and declared use by private companies for public purpose.
The provisions of the Act does not apply to acquisitions under 16 existing legislations including the Special Economic Zones Act,the Atomic Energy Act,the Railways Act,etc. When government declares public purpose and shall control the land directly, consent of the land owner shall not be required.
The urgency clause may only be invoked for national defense, security and in the event of rehabilitation of affected people from natural disasters or emergencies. Definition of 'land owner'[ edit ] The Act defines the following as land owner: However such acquisition may be permitted on demonstrable last resort, which will be subjected to an aggregated upper limit for all the projects in a District or State as notified by the State Government.
In addition to the above condition, wherever multi-crop irrigated land is acquired an equivalent area of cultivable wasteland shall be developed by the state for agricultural purposes.
In other type of agricultural land, the total acquisition shall not exceed the limit for all the projects in a District or State as notified by the Appropriate Authority. These limits shall not apply to linear projects which includes projects for railways, highways, major district roads, power lines, and irrigation canals.
Schedule I outlines the proposed minimum compensation based on a multiple of market value. Schedule II through VI outline the resettlement and rehabilitation entitlements to land owners and livelihood losers, which shall be in addition to the minimum compensation per Schedule I. Market value[ edit ] The market value of the proposed land to be acquired, shall be set as the higher of: The market value would be multiplied by a factor of, at least one to two times the market value for land acquired in rural areas and at least one times the market value for land acquired in urban areas.
The Act stipulates that the minimum compensation to be a multiple of the total of above ascertained market value, value to assets attached to the property, plus a solatium equal to percent of the market value of the property including value of assets. In addition to above compensation, the Act proposes a wide range of rehabilitation and resettlement entitlements to land owners and livelihood losers from the land acquirer.The name India is derived from Indus, which originates from the Old Persian word Hindu.
The latter term stems from the Sanskrit word Sindhu, which was the historical local appellation for the Indus River. The ancient Greeks referred to the Indians as Indoi), which translates as "The people of the Indus".. The geographical term Bharat (Bhārat; .
The Punjab under Colonialism: Order and Transformation in British India customary law that formed the cornerstone of the British policy of political control. _____ When the British annexed the Sikh kingdom of the Punjab in , they already Transformation and Land Ownership in Colonial Punjab.
The Right to Fair Compensation and Transparency in Land Acquisition, Rehabilitation and Resettlement Act, (also Land Acquisition Act, ) is an Act of Indian Parliament that regulates land acquisition and lays down the procedure and rules for granting compensation, rehabilitation and resettlement to the affected persons in India.
The Act. The East India Company’s conquest of various territories in India typically brought one issue to the forefront right away: How would land taxes, the principal source of governmental revenue, be.
Brief History of law in India; Nationwide call for strike in all Courts on by BCI to oppose the draconian, undemocratic, anti-lawyer Advocates (Amendment) Bill, proposed by the Law Commission of India to the Government. Custom as Natural: Land, Water and Law in Colonial Madras Aditya Ramesh1 Abstract and the environment in colonial India.
The Privy Council judgement rendered custom a physical, historically reified, and ‘natural’ quality, simultaneously within Keywords Water, law, custom, land, Madras, Irrigation Cess Act, Urlam In , the.