Overview[ edit ] Critical theory German: Critical Theory is a social theory oriented toward critiquing and changing society as a whole, in contrast to traditional theory oriented only to understanding or explaining it. Horkheimer wanted to distinguish critical theory as a radical, emancipatory form of Marxian theory, critiquing both the model of science put forward by logical positivism and what he and his colleagues saw as the covert positivism and authoritarianism of orthodox Marxism and Communism.
References and Further Reading 1. This school sought to develop a deductivist philosophy of science to complement their deductivist psychology. While working on this program, Karl Popper stumbled onto a non-justificationist theory of scientific knowledge: Popper and other critical rationalists took on the project of explaining the growth of knowledge without justification.
This project has produced various competing theories of rationality and has been extended to many fields. This article will concentrate on the internal logic and problems involved in the development of critical methods capable of producing the growth of knowledge.
Of the numerous justificationist predecessors let only this be said. The overwhelming majority of those who comment on critical rationalism claim that critical rationalism is Critical essay political science incoherent and that inductivism is better.
A major exception was Bertrand Russell. He appreciated the logical strength of critical rationalism and knew the logical weakness of induction. Nevertheless he clung to induction. He thought that critical rationalism was a philosophy of despair. Whether his judgment of critical rationalism was correct depends on whether its development can bring progress.
To show this progress, new critical rationalist ideas are described and presented below.
This should provide an answer to Russell that he amply deserves. Popper and Non-Justificationism Inductive inferences have observations as premises and theories as conclusions.
They are notoriously invalid but often are deemed unavoidable. Critical rationalism views them as unnecessary. He hoped to build a theory of the proper assessment of sentences, that is, of the possibility of proving the truth or falsity of some sentences.
He began with the fact that a theory is false if it contradicts a singular sentence describing some observation reports. Popper then said that such singular sentences were veridical, that is, truthful as opposed to illusory, so they may be used to produce final proofs of the falsity of some universal sentences.
As a consequence no such putative proof can be valid. Popper himself found the theory he presented in Die beiden Grundprobleme der Erkenntnistheorie without chapter 5 inadequate for three reasons. The first reason is that singular statements are not veridical. He began work on this problem in chapter 5 of Die beiden Grundprobleme.
This chapter contains a theory of science which differs on important points from the theory found in the rest of that volume. The task of the philosophy of science is to explain how these assignments are properly made. Reichenbach said the calculus of probabilities serves that purpose.
Popper argued that it is not possible to properly assign either the truth value True or some degree of probability to universal sentences.
He could not distinguish between these two sets of theories within his justificationist framework, since, on this view, only proofs or refutations of these theories could do that. He asserted, however, that no proof was possible and refutations could establish only the falsity of universal propositions.
As a consequence of these three difficulties Popper developed an entirely different theory of science in chapter 5, then in Logik der Forschung. In order to overcome the problems his first view faced, he adopted two central strategies.
First, he reformulated the task of the philosophy of science. Rather than presenting scientific method as a tool for properly assigning truth values to sentences, he presented rules of scientific method as conducive to the growth of knowledge.
Apparently he still held that only proven or refuted sentences could take truth values. But this view is incompatible with his new philosophy of science as it appears in his Logik der Forschung:Critical Race Theory Essay This example Critical Race Theory Essay is published for educational and informational purposes only.
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Karl Popper: Critical Rationalism “Critical Rationalism” is the name Karl Popper () gave to a modest and self-critical rationalism.
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