He was the first to put forth the theory that children develop in specific stages. Lawrence Kohlberg was an American developmental psychologist born in whose primary focus was on how children develop a sense of morality. The theories of Kohlberg are based on those of Piaget, although their theories and approaches differ as well. Explain that for Piaget moral development occurs in two distinct stages.
History, economics, politics, psychology, and the classroom Monday, August 9, Motivating Students: Skinner with those of Carl Rogers.
These two psychologists see behavior quite differently. Skinner, a determinist, believes that all behavior can be traced to a causal relationship with the environment, or, more technically, to contingency cycles of positive or negative reinforcement or punishment.
Rogers, an existentialist, believes that behavior is dependent on human choice and free will. Skinner, a logical positivist, is only interested in overt behaviors that can be measured. Rogers is comfortable talking about internal motivation.
Despite opposite approaches and very different terminology, both psychologists have influenced educational theory and, surprisingly, often agree on the best types of learning.
An eclectic teacher may want to use techniques derived from both theories. Desirable taught behaviors must be constructed in advance.
Using a table chart, compare Maslow’s hierarchy of needs theory with Skinner’s behaviorist theory by addressing the following: 1. How is motivation defined? 2. How does motivation change for elementary versus secondary students? 3. How are the theories similar and/or different? 4. List, at minimum, three ways that each can be applied in the classroom. Compare and Contrast Paper Essay - Part 2. This week assignment is about two of greatest theorist, Abraham Maslow and B.F - Compare and Contrast Paper Essay introduction. Skinner, who has helped to provide structure into today’s classroom. An Analytical Comparison and Contrast of Behaviorism and Humanism Behaviorism is widely discussed in psychology classes among America. Children are introduced to the works of Watson, Skinner and even Pavlov at an early age.
An easy environment is made more and more difficult as the children acquire the capacity to adjust…. But…these potentially unhappy situations are never very annoying. Our schedules make sure of that…. They get the satisfaction of pleasant and profitable social relations…" pp.
Self-control and other aspects of ethical training are completed in Walden Two by the age of six! These children, now fortified with longer attention spans, are rarely taught anything.
They prefer to learn by themselves. We teach only the techniques of learning and thinking. As for geography, literature, the sciences--we give our children opportunity and guidance, and they learn them for themselves [italics mine]. In that way we dispense with half the teachers required under the old system, and the education is incomparably better.
And a good share of our education goes on in workshops, laboratories, and fields" P. Much learning is project based: Students in California schools, at least until the age of 16, are forced, under threat of punishment, to go to school.
They are forced to do the same work everyone else does under threat of punishment. If they act in a disorderly or unruly way they will be punished. Can the constant threat of punishment be a good thing? A boy that is punished for yelling out of turn will very likely resume this behavior once a substitute teacher is in the room.
A child that refuses to do school work receives a poor grade and a call home so the parents can inflict additional punishments.
The child resumes doing his schoolwork only to raise his grade. For example, by removing gum from the school, it is less likely to be found in the classroom.
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Then the teacher no longer has to punish students for chewing it and leaving it under desks. If a teacher ignores a student having a temper tantrum, the behavior is no longer reinforced and often goes away on its own without the use of punishment.
In contrast, Rogers believes that internal motivators exist. However, Rogerslike Skinner, wishes to change punitive learning environments. He describes one in an impoverished ghetto area. When will students learn, and what is the best learning environment?
According to Rogers, children will learn when the curriculum has personal meaning and the learning is significant and experiential P. More precisely, Rogers defines the elements involved in experiential learning.
It has a quality of personal involvement. The learner herself evaluates it. Lastly, its essence is meaning P. This type of whole-person learning combines both the intuitive and the logical and uses what he calls both masculine and feminine capacities.
Rogers compares experiential, whole-person learning against an atomized type of learning.Compare and Contrast Paper Essay - Part 2. This week assignment is about two of greatest theorist, Abraham Maslow and B.F - Compare and Contrast Paper Essay introduction.
Skinner, who has helped to provide structure into today’s classroom. Behaviorism (or behaviourism) is a systematic approach to understanding the behavior of humans and other leslutinsduphoenix.com assumes that all behaviors are either reflexes produced by a response to certain stimuli in the environment, or a consequence of that individual's history, including especially reinforcement and punishment, together with the individual's current motivational state and controlling.
Abraham Maslow was a practising psychologist who noted through his experience that people seemed to have certain categories of needs.
In fact, he defined five specific levels of needs, Self-Actualisation, self-esteem, Social, Security and Physical, and said that they were organised in a hierarchy. Compare and contrast motivational theories (e.g., drive reduction theory, arousal theory, general adaptation theory), including the strengths and weaknesses of each.
Developmental and Learning Theories Gesell Freud Erikson Skinner Bandura Vygotsky Piaget •Is a child’s development due more to maturation –Abraham Maslow Freud Erikson Skinner Bandura Piaget VygotskyBronfenbrenner Gardner Gesell Maslow Sigmund Freud ().
In the chart below we compare Maslow's Hierarchy of Needs with the Seven Chakras from Eastern Psychology and tradition and with the three ego of states of .