Yet a fair amount of confusion, especially among educators, persists about what this skill is and why it is so important. Written for practitioners, this article describes phonemic awareness and discusses why it is a prerequisite for learning to read, how we have come to understand its importance, why it can be difficult to acquire, and what happens to the would-be reader who fails to acquire it. Our discussion of phonemic awareness is framed within a particular view of reading, to which we turn first. The major difference between the written and the spoken word is not what is being communicated, but how the communication is taking place, by eye rather than ear.
In recent years, the idea of building a "learning organization" has gained currency in management circles. Many senior managers, in particular, have come to recognize that, with the right approach to collective learning, their enterprises can continually gain new talents and capabilities even as they weather the vicissitudes of fate.
Managers in middle levels, meanwhile, have embraced the "learning organization" idea because it encourages people to follow their own aspirations and, in the process, boost organizational performance. This implies that people can reclaim a little bit of the spirit of community and personal involvement that has been leached out of conventional business decision-making.
But even the most fervent "learning organization" enthusiasts have difficulty demonstrating a link between organizational learning efforts and key business results. The same is true for other types of "change" and "transformation" efforts.
Executives authorize millions of dollars for organizational learning, reengineering, re-invention, or quality improvement -- and then grapple unsuccessfully with the problem of assessing their investment. Assessment is also vital for the participants in learning efforts.
They need to judge the value of their past experience, if only to help their organizations move forward and to develop their judgment and skills further. Moreover, the rest of the company also needs to understand the experience of its learning efforts to date.
They will, after all, need to build upon that experience. How do they replicate the first successes, and avoid repeating the first mistakes? How do they spread the sense of potential achievement through the rest of the organization?
How do they overcome the disdain for anything "not invented in our part of the company"? Companies have found it notoriously difficult to institutionalize the learning of its subgroups, to help the rest of the organization develop. Finally, successful learning efforts generally require people to rise above their conventional blinders to add new ways of thinking and new forms of behavior to their repertoire.
But these sorts of changes are misunderstood. To really make sense of a learning effort, people throughout the organization need to see it through the various perspectives of people who have been involved with it firsthand ,so that they can come to terms with it based on actual data not just on the gossip that reaches themand make sense of it in a way that is credible to them.
In short, when an organization has been through a learning or change process, people throughout the organization need a feedback process that can provide guidance and support Yet reacting to the pressure of assessing learning can easily undermine any learning effort.
As people become aware of being assessed and measured, the intrinsic motivation which drove them to learn is supplanted by an extrinsically motivated desire to look successful.
Learning histories were invented in response to these concerns and needs. A "learning history" is a document,or a series of documents, possibly in audiovisual form ,that is disseminated in a deliberately structured manner. The document, and the dissemination, are both designed to help organizations become better aware of their own learning and change efforts.
The learning history presents the experiences and understandings of participants ,people who initiated, implemented and participated in organizational transformation efforts, or some collaborative learning experience ,as well as non-participants who were affected by these efforts.
The history includes reports of actions and results. It shows readers how learning is an approach to get what they want, and it illustrates how others have achieved the results they wanted.Studying history is important to the future of humanity.
Knowing what has happened in the past is important if for no other reason than to hopefully prevent humanity from repeating mistakes over and over again.
Keeping a documented history and studying it is one of the most important learning tools. Education technology advocates, philanthropies, and others are trying to create a clearer definition of what qualifies as "personalized learning," one of the most popular terms in education today.
A brief history of twentieth-century linguistics. An introduction to the different ways that language can be studied, and the contributions of Saussure and Jakobson in context.
The importance of the function concept was emphasized holistically for secondary mathematics curriculum, in historical mathematics education reports (such as National Committee on Mathematical Requirements report, and Progressive Education.
The learning history work trains a core group of internal people in the methods of reflective interviewing, distillation, and even writing, and brings them up to speed in an overview of the existing transformation process.
Well, for ESU and most of the conference participants, this is connected to the wider concept of student-centred learning, which was summed up by Education International’s Guntars Catlaks as a shift away from the “delivery of knowledge” and towards the “development of knowledge and skills”.