Systems View of Training - Stages in a Training Program Systems View of Training - Stages in a Training Program The success of a training program is evaluated in terms of the end result or the increase in the work ability, skill or competency in the trainee.
Clinicians are constantly faced with the challenge of designing training programs for injured and noninjured athletes that maximize healing and optimize performance. Periodization is a concept of systematic progression—that is, resistance training programs that follow predictable patterns of change in training variables.
The strength training literature is abundant with studies comparing periodization schemes on uninjured, trained, and untrained athletes. The rehabilitation literature, however, is scarce with information about how to optimally design resistance training programs based on periodization principles for injured athletes.
The purpose of this review is to discuss relevant training variables and methods of periodization, as well as periodization program outcomes.
A secondary purpose is to provide an anecdotal framework regarding implementation of periodization principles into rehabilitation programs. A Medline search from to was implemented with the keywords periodization, strength training, rehabilitation, endurance, power, hypertrophy, and resistance training with the Boolean term AND in all possible combinations in the English language.
Each author also undertook independent hand searching of article references used in this review. Based on the studies researched, periodized strength training regimens demonstrate improved outcomes as compared to nonperiodized programs. Despite the evidence in the strength training literature supporting periodization programs, there is a considerable lack of data in the rehabilitation literature about program design and successful implementation of periodization into rehabilitation programs.
A significant challenge lies in designing optimal training programs that facilitate neuro and muscular adaptations while being mindful of biological healing and the safety of the athlete. The clinician must consider that the athlete may not tolerate the systematic changes in training that come with progression through a protocol.
The strength training literature is often based on determining the 1-repetition maximum 1 RMthe maximum amount of weight that can be successfully lifted 1 time. Unfortunately, determining the 1 RM is contraindicated in those rehabilitating from an injury. Prediction models do exist for understanding the predicted 1 RM in healthy patients.
Rehabilitation programs are often performed when an athlete does not have his or her full range of motion and strength restored, which usually does not happen until the athlete is near the end stages. Loading is often a moving target based on pain and available ranges of movement.
The clinician is left with a best-guess approach to determine the ideal resistance for the athlete. Manipulating training variables to facilitate maximum gains—including sets, repetitions, load, and rest periods—can be daunting. Further complicating rehabilitation program design is poor agreement in the literature about the best way to rehabilitate an athlete while keeping these principles in mind.
Last, the venue in which an athlete completes rehabilitation can cause programs to change as well. For example, a certified athletic trainer in a university setting will have fewer insurance limitations with an athlete, compared to a physical therapist in a private clinical setting.
Therefore, these considerations may need to be reflected in program design. A paucity of data regarding use of periodization models exists in the rehabilitation literature.
Despite these limitations, several models of progressing athletes through training programs can be applied to rehabilitation. The review seeks to assimilate the available literature to provide a theoretical framework for the clinician to safely and effectively design programs for athletes recovering from injury.
Resistance Training Principles Load Load is the amount of weight assigned to an exercise set. The load of an exercise program has often been characterized as the most critical aspect of a resistance training program.
Assigning a proper load in a resistance training program for the rehabilitating athlete depends on such factors as training experience, current level of fitness, and type of pathology. One or more of these loading schemes can be employed depending on the athlete: A repetition maximum continuum has been supported.
High-intensity training involves few repetitions, whereas low-intensity endurance training requires much higher repetitions eg, RM. Volume Training volume is a summation of the total number of repetitions performed during a training session multiplied by the resistance used kilograms or poundsand it reflects the duration of which muscles are being stressed.
The success of single-set versus multiple-set systems have been debated in regard to which provides superior results with respect to strength.
Several studies have reported similar strength increases between single- and multiple-set programs, 193474 whereas others have reported multiple-set programs being superior 912697679 in previously untrained subjects.
The popularity of single-set training has grown among general fitness enthusiasts. Progressive Overload To continue making gains in an exercise program, stress to the muscle must be progressively increased as it becomes capable of producing greater force, power, or endurance.This system of training is typically divided up into three types of cycles: microcycle, mesocycle, and macrocycle.
The microcycle is generally up to 7 days. The mesocycle may be anywhere from 2 weeks to a few months and can further be classified into preparation, competition, peaking, and transition phases. The most important and fundamental principle of block periodization is the concentration of the training workloads.
The rationale which mediates it, is the long-established fact that only highly-concentrated training workloads can produce sufficient stimuli for any remarkable gains of the appropriate motor and/or technical abilities in high-level athletes (Issurin ).
Periodization is the process of dividing an annual training plan into specific time blocks, where each block has a particular goal and provides your body with different types of stress.
This allows you to create some hard training periods and some easier periods to facilitate recovery. Periodization is the process of dividing an annual training plan into specific time blocks, where each block has a particular goal and provides your body with different types of stress.
This allows you to create some hard training periods and some easier periods to facilitate recovery. Periodization: The 4 Phases of Training. By Gale Bernhardt; Periodization. Briefly, a periodization plan manipulates exercise volumes and intensities over the course of weeks, months and years.
A periodization plan for an Olympic athlete will span the course of several years. This type of plan is designed to have the athlete at peak fitness. Dec 01, · Considering analysis of the unexamined or partially examined aspects of the annual periodization in team sport games, as mentioned before, empirically, it has not been proven how much time is required for various types of work in the annual training cycle of .