Thirteen Colonies Eastern North America in The border between the red and pink areas represents the "Proclamation line", while the orange area represents the Spanish claim. Early seeds Main articles: On October 9, the Navigation Acts were passed pursuant to a mercantilist policy intended to ensure that trade enriched only Great Britain, and barring trade with foreign nations.
The British North American colonists had just helped to win a world war and most, like Rush, had never been more proud to be British. And yet, in a little over a decade, those same colonists would declare their independence and break away from the British Empire.
Seen fromnothing would have seemed as improbable as the American Revolution. A revolution fought in the name of liberty allowed slavery to persist. Resistance to centralized authority tied disparate colonies ever closer together under new governments.
The revolution created politicians eager to foster republican selflessness and protect the public good but also encouraged individual self-interest and personal gain.
But once unleashed, these popular forces continued to shape the new nation and indeed the rest of American history.
In this section, we will look broadly at some of the long-term political, intellectual, cultural, and economic developments in the eighteenth century that set the context for the crisis of the s and s.
Two factors contributed to these failures. Constant war was politically consuming and economically expensive. Second, competing visions of empire divided British officials. Old Whigs and their Tory supporters envisioned an authoritarian empire, based on conquering territory and extracting resources.
The radical or patriot Whigs based their imperial vision on trade and manufacturing instead of land and resources. They argued that economic growth, not raising taxes, would solve the national debt.
There were occasional attempts to reform the administration of the colonies, but debate between the two sides prevented coherent reform. InJames Otis Jr. Many colonists came to see their assemblies as having the same jurisdiction over them that Parliament exercised over those in England.
They interpreted British inaction as justifying their tradition of local governance. The Crown and Parliament, however, disagreed. In both Britain and the colonies, land was the key to political participation, but because land was more easily obtained in the colonies, a higher proportion of male colonists participated in politics.
These ideas—generally referred to as the ideology of republicanism—stressed the corrupting nature of power and the need for those involved in self-governing to be virtuous i. Patriots would need to be ever vigilant against the rise of conspiracies, centralized control, and tyranny.
Only a small fringe in Britain held these ideas, but in the colonies, they were widely accepted. Perhaps no single philosopher had a greater impact on colonial thinking than John Locke.
In his Essay Concerning Human Understanding, Locke argued that the mind was originally a tabula rasa or blank slate and that individuals were formed primarily by their environment. The aristocracy then were wealthy or successful because they had greater access to wealth, education, and patronage and not because they were innately superior.
Locke followed this essay with Some Thoughts Concerning Education, which introduced radical new ideas about the importance of education. Education would produce rational human beings capable of thinking for themselves and questioning authority rather than tacitly accepting tradition.
These ideas slowly came to have far-reaching effects in the colonies and, later, the new nation. Between andthe Rev. George Whitefield, an enigmatic, itinerant preacher, traveled the colonies preaching Calvinist sermons to huge crowds.
In his wake, new traveling preachers picked up his message and many congregations split. Both Locke and Whitefield had empowered individuals to question authority and to take their lives into their own hands.
In other ways, eighteenth-century colonists were becoming more culturally similar to Britons, a process often referred to as Anglicization. As colonial economies grew, they quickly became an important market for British manufacturing exports.
Colonists with disposable income and access to British markets attempted to mimic British culture.Women, Race, and the Law in Early America Summary and Keywords Everywhere across European and Indigenous settlements in 17th- and 18th-century North America and the Caribbean, the law or legal practices shaped women’s status and conditioned their dependency, regardless of race, age, marital status, or place of birth.
American literature - The 19th century: After the American Revolution, and increasingly after the War of , American writers were exhorted to produce a literature that was truly native.
As if in response, four authors of very respectable stature appeared. Posted in 18th Century / American Revolution, 19th Century, US History by Time Period | Tagged abolition, american revolution, Amistad, brooks winfree, civil war, frederick douglass, Fugitive Slave Law (), George Latimer, haitian revolution, John Quincy Adams, manisha sinha, Nat Turner, Nat Turner's Rebellion, slavery, south carolina.
Particularly important is the monumental and definitive, though densely written, two volume political history of the coming of the American Revolution by Bernhard Knollenberg, Origins of the American Revolution: –; and Growth of the American Revolution, – Pages in category "18th-century revolutions" The following 11 pages are in this category, out of 11 total.
This list may not reflect recent changes. The French Revolution broke out in , and its effects reverberated throughout much of Europe for many decades. World War I began in Its inception resulted from many trends in European society, culture, and diplomacy during the late 19th century.